定義「回歸」(Aliyah)

猶太人回歸錫安的意義及歷史

Printer-friendly versionSend by email

什麼是Aliyah?

西元七十年,隨著第二聖殿被毀,猶太人從家鄉被驅離,歷代在世界各處流亡。流散的足跡,遠至歐洲直布羅陀海峡及亞洲印度邊境。幾世紀以來,猶太人有個傳統,逾越節晚餐後會彼此對說:明年耶路撒冷見!儘管離散,回歸的渴望深植在人心中,渴望在近兩千年的流亡後,能再聚集。

Aliyah是個希伯來字,意為「上行」。原意是上行至耶路撒冷守節,現今則指猶太人回歸以色列故土。

簡言之,Aliyah意為離散的猶太人從地的四極再次聚集—就是猶太人移居回到他們的故土。Aliyah深植於猶太人的心中,是在離散兩千年後,一個重建自己國家的渴望。
 
Aliyah的聖經基礎
 
也許您未曾在主日訊息中聽過Aliyah一詞,或是主日學不曾教導關於Aliyah的事,甚至沒有在任何一個版本的聖經中讀過。Aliyah的的確確有聖經基礎,是神心中的思念,而祂希望您也投入Aliyah的工作。
 
舊約先知數次提到Aliyah—神應許將帶以色列的兒女回家,回到以色列。
 
先知以賽亞說:
 

• 他必向列國豎立大旗,招回以色列被趕散的人,又從地的四方聚集分散的猶大人。(以賽亞書11:12)

• 不要害怕,因我與你同在;我必領你的後裔從東方來,又從西方招聚你。我要對北方說,交出來!對南方說,不要拘留!將我的眾子從遠方帶來,將我的眾女從地極領回。(以賽亞書43:5-6)

• 耶和華如此說:我必向列國舉手,向萬民豎立大旗;他們必將你的眾子懷中抱來,將你的眾女肩上扛來。 (以賽亞書49:22)

先知耶利米也說必有Aliyah發生,其榮耀將大於以色列出埃及的那日:

• 耶和華說:「日子將到,人必不再指著那領以色列人從埃及地上來之永生的耶和華起誓,卻要指著那領以色列人從北方之地,並趕他們到的各國上來之永生的耶和華起誓,並且我要領他們再入我從前賜給他們列祖之地。 (耶利米書16:14-15)

• 主對耶利米說:「你將我對你說過的一切話都寫在書上。耶和華說:日子將到,我要使我的百姓以色列和猶大被擄的人歸回;我也要使他們回到我所賜給他們列祖之地,他們就得這地為業。這是耶和華說的。」 (耶利米書30:2-3)

Aliyah浪潮

即使流散,數世紀以來,仍有猶太人居住在以色列這土地上。直至十九世紀後期,為逃離各地反閃主義的逼迫以及受到錫安主義激勵,大批的猶太人回到當時被英國託管,稱為「巴勒斯坦」的這塊土地上。這些先驅者築路造鎮,並在Jezreel河谷和Hefer平原等地清理沼澤 、整理廢棄的荒地成為可耕種的良田、在廣大光禿的山岡上造林、興建農舍,並且推動復興希伯來語,成為日常用語。此時,回歸到「巴勒斯坦」(現今的以色列),成為浪潮。

第一波(1882-1903)— 在一連串屠殺以及俄國沙王亞歷山大三世於1882年推出反閃的「五月法律」後,第一波回歸潮發生。此時,移民大多過著集體的農業屯墾生活,必須和疾病、土耳其的課稅、阿拉伯人的反對對抗。幾年之間便有35,000名移入。

第二波(1904-1914)— 正值俄國沙皇時代的反猶太人情結高漲。這一批移民多是受社會主義影響的年輕人,以色列社會的雛形也在此時期誕生,例如第一個Kibbutz Degania 在1909年成立、Ha-Shomer是第一個有組織的防衛組織、約帕旁的Ahuzat Bayit發展成今日的TelAviv、希伯萊語成為日用的語言、希伯萊文學及報紙也在此時產生、政治團體成立、農業組織成形,這些開拓者為日後以色列建國立下根基。這時期有40,000名猶太移民,但由於融合不易及經濟困難,一半的人後來離開。

第三波(1919-1923)— 第二波回歸潮因第一次世界大戰(1914-1918)而中止,後因俄國1917年的十月革命,以及相繼在波蘭、匈牙利的屠殺,重啟回歸浪潮,為第三波。農業屯墾區擴大,第一個工業企業於此時建立。

第四波(1924-1929)— 直接導因於當時波蘭的反猶政策,以及美國的移民限額政策。這時期的移民大多數是中產階級,且都帶著財富回來,從事生意或工廠的工作。

第五波(1929-1939)— 1933年納粹黨在德國執政,掀起第五波回歸潮。

近代的回歸

 

第二次世界大戰及其後(1939-1948)— 為離開納粹統治的歐洲,透過各種管道,人數高達四十八萬,九成從歐洲回歸。

1948年建國後的大量移民— 1948年5月14日,宣布猶太人的新國家以色列在原英國殖民的巴勒斯坦、古以色列王國及猶大王國的地區成立。大批猶太人移入。

1989至2010年— 超過一百萬名猶太人由前蘇聯回歸。據估計,前蘇聯仍有一百萬名猶太人,在德國、美加,也有八十萬。

ICEJ已援助超過十一萬民猶太人從前蘇聯及其它國家回歸!
 

重大營救行動

  • 魔毯行動— 1949年五月,以色列政府安排約380個飛機班次,將45,000名猶太人從葉門帶回,其中多是兒童。
  • 摩西及約書亞行動— 1984年11月21日~1985年1月5日,摩西行動將8,000名衣索比亞猶太人從蘇丹空運至以色列。1985年,約書亞行動營救800名猶太人。(1984年大饑荒,數千名衣索比亞猶太人徒步逃往蘇丹難民營。估計跋涉過程中死亡人數多達4000人。)
  • 所羅門行動— 1991年5月24日,衣索比亞政權倒塌,反政府武裝部隊取得政權。以色列政府和猶太組織決定把衣索比亞猶太人送回以色列,以躲避內亂。該行動迅雷不及掩耳的程度可比當年以色列出埃及:1991年5月24日,短短36小時內,以色列空軍和以色列航空的貨機,把14,324猶太人運回以色列。其中一架貨機更破天荒地運載1,122人,兩個新生兒在該航班上出生。
The Aliyah Work of the ICEJ
Since the founding of the International Christian Embassy Jerusalem (ICEJ) in 1980, there has been an understanding that one day the ICE] would be involved in helping Jews return to Israel from around the world. As such, a special account was set up for donations regarding Aliyah.
 
In the early 1990’s, the ICEJ’s Aliyah ministry expanded rapidly in order to help with the sudden influx of tens of thousands of Soviet Jews anxious to relocate to Israel. While sponsoring 54 flights of Russian Jewry, the ICEJ also partnered with other ministries to transport Jews from the Ukraine and other areas. Working closely with the Jewish Agency, our “fisherman” began seeking out Jewish communities, offering assistance and supplying the needed finances for the journey home to Israel.
 
During this time, the ICEJ began working in a practical way on two fronts. First, the Finnish Branch began helping Jews return to Israel from the Western part of Russia and all over the Soviet Union. Once the Immigrants arrive in Finland, they are cared for by loving Finnish Christians for 3 days as they travel through Finland to Helsinki for their flight to Israel.
 
In the years that followed, the Aliyah work of the ICE] has continued to expand dramatically, and we now have the following offices operating today:
 
St Petersburg, Russia
ICEJ Director of Aliyah Operations:  Howard Flower
Works closely with Finnish Branch led by Juha Ketola, Funded by ICEJ and is responsible for overseeing the worldwide Aliyah operations of ICEJ.
 
Siberia, Russia
Work began in 1999 in partnership with regional churches. Dozens of native Russian Christians now conduct “fishing” ventures throughout Siberia. Main bases of operation are Irkutsk, Omsk and Novosibirsk. Funded by ICEJ, Ministry to Israel, Ezra Foundation and Bridges for Peace.
 
Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia
Coordinator: Serguei Popov, ICEJ Finnish Branch
The ICEJ and Ministry to Israel fund this office. Working closely with the Jewish Agency in Tashkent, it funds fishing trips, and has supplied computers and office equipment for Jewish Agency programs in Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan and Georgia.
 
Latvia, Lithuania and Kaliningrad
Director:  Ilze Saulite, ICEJ representative for Latvia
This office is responsible for fishing, as well as van and air transportation for immigrants from the Baltic countries and the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad.
 
Canada
Director: Donna Holbrook, ICEJ National director for Canada
Working with the Jewish Agency, Donna helps Russian speaking Olim from Canada
to receive an ICEJ Habaita Absorption Grant given after arrival in Israel by ICEJ Aid representative Nathalie Charon. Funded by ICEJ-Canada
 
Brighton Beach, New York
Coordinator: Lev Medelevitch does fishing and awards ICEJ incentive grants to Russian speaking Olim on their way to Israel. Funded by ICEJ-USA
 
Recently, the ICE) has expanded its Aliyah operations in France and South America. Also in 2004 ICEJ resumed its Aliyah flight program and has sponsored group and individual flights from Russia, Sweden, France, and Finland.
 
ICEJ Norway has sponsored a bold fishing initiative in Germany to locate and encourage Russian-speaking Jews to come home. And under the direction of Erik Selle has begun a new fishing initiative to encourage US Reform and Conservative Jews to make Aliyah. 
 

How You Can Help

The prophets spoke of Aliyah, and it is happening NOW! The numbers of Jewish people returning home to Israel, and the witness of the Holy Spirit among Christian believers confirms this fact.
 
The bible also speaks of those who will be involved in helping the Jews return to Israel— the Gentiles. This means you and me!
 
“See. I will beckon to the Gentiles, I will lift up my banner to the peoples; they will carry your sons in their arms and carry your daughters on their shoulders.” (Isaiah 49:22)
 
We live in a unique period in history where we can have a part in God’s great plan. We can help! How?
 
You Can Pray:
  • When we ask God to bring the Jews home from the north, south, east and west we are praying according to God’s will. Please pray for all Jews to come home
  • Pray for God’s timing. When He moves upon the nations, pray that the Jewish people would discern the time to return home to Israel
  • Pray for the ”fishers”
  • Pray that the church would catch the vision of God’s heart for Aliyah. This may include the congregation that you attend
  • Pray for the Aliyah from the West, and that the church be ready for this season
  • Pray that God would speak to individuals, churches and businesses to finance the Aliyah

You Can Give:

Would you like to help the Jews return home to Israel by “carrying their sons in your arms, and their daughters on your shoulders?” While this may be physically impossible for you, it is entirely possible through your financial gifts. You will discover the double blessing of both praying and giving to something that is burning on God’s heart. What an honor to assist in the fulfillment of His words spoken through the prophets.

 

Share this: